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    Nature发表了马铃薯晚疫病细菌基因组序列结果

      

    Broad Institute,俄亥俄州立大学,瑞典Uppsala大学,荷兰Wageningen大学,英国爱丁堡大学,英国Warwick大学等科学家组成的国际研究团队最近在Nature上发布马铃薯晚疫病细菌基因组序列结果Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans。

    Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    Brian J. Haas1,35, Sophien Kamoun2,3,35, Michael C. Zody1,4, Rays H. Y. Jiang1,5, Robert E. Handsaker1, Liliana M. Cano2, Manfred Grabherr1, Chinnappa D. Kodira1,36, Sylvain Raffaele2, Trudy Torto-Alalibo3,36, Tolga O. Bozkurt2, Audrey M. V. Ah-Fong6, Lucia Alvarado1, Vicky L. Anderson7, Miles R. Armstrong8, Anna Avrova8, Laura Baxter9, Jim Beynon9, Petra C. Boevink8, Stephanie R. Bollmann10, Jorunn I. B. Bos3, Vincent Bulone11, Guohong Cai12, Cahid Cakir3, James C. Carrington13, Megan Chawner14, Lucio Conti15, Stefano Costanzo16, Richard Ewan15, Noah Fahlgren13, Michael A. Fischbach17, Johanna Fugelstad11, Eleanor M. Gilroy8, Sante Gnerre1, Pamela J. Green18, Laura J. Grenville-Briggs7, John Griffith14, Niklaus J. Grünwald10, Karolyn Horn14, Neil R. Horner7, Chia-Hui Hu19, Edgar Huitema3, Dong-Hoon Jeong18, Alexandra M. E. Jones2, Jonathan D. G. Jones2, Richard W. Jones20, Elinor K. Karlsson1, Sridhara G. Kunjeti21, Kurt Lamour22, Zhenyu Liu3, LiJun Ma1, Daniel MacLean2, Marcus C. Chibucos23, Hayes McDonald24, Jessica McWalters14, Harold J. G. Meijer5, William Morgan25, Paul F. Morris26, Carol A. Munro27, Keith O'Neill1,36, Manuel Ospina-Giraldo14, Andrés Pinzón28, Leighton Pritchard8, Bernard Ramsahoye29, Qinghu Ren30, Silvia Restrepo28, Sourav Roy6, Ari Sadanandom15, Alon Savidor31, Sebastian Schornack2, David C. Schwartz32, Ulrike D. Schumann7, Ben Schwessinger2, Lauren Seyer14, Ted Sharpe1, Cristina Silvar2, Jing Song3, David J. Studholme2, Sean Sykes1, Marco Thines2,33, Peter J. I. van de Vondervoort5, Vipaporn Phuntumart26, Stephan Wawra7, Rob Weide5, Joe Win2, Carolyn Young3, Shiguo Zhou32, William Fry12, Blake C. Meyers18, Pieter van West7, Jean Ristaino19, Francine Govers5, Paul R. J. Birch34, Stephen C. Whisson8, Howard S. Judelson6 & Chad Nusbaum1

     

    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA

    The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK

    Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA

    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Box 597, Uppsala SE-751 24, Sweden

    Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, 1-6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands

    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA ……

    University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK

    Plant Pathology Programme, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK

    University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK

    Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Corvallis, Oregon 97330, USA

    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm SE-10691, Sweden

    Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New

      

    Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement1. To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population1. Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion2. Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars3, 4. Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.



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